Recent publications


Wood, A. K., Galloway, R. K. and Hardy, J. (2016). Can dual processing theory explain physics students’ performance on the Force Concept Inventory? Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res12(2), 023101. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.12.023101

Wood, A. K., Galloway, R. K., Donnelly, R. and Hardy, J. (2016). Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class. Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res12(1), 010140. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.12.010140

Hardy, J., Galloway, R. K., Rhind, S. M., McBride, K., Hughes, K., and Donnelly, R. (2016). Ask, answer, assess: Peer learning from student-generated content. Available online at


Wood, A. K.,  Galloway, R. K., Hardy, J. and Sinclair, C. M. (2014). Analyzing learning during Peer Instruction dialogues: A resource activation framework. Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 10(2), 020107. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.10.020107

Bates, S. P., Galloway, R. K., Riise, J. and Homer, D. (2014). Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository. Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res 10(2), 020105. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.10.020105

Hardy, J., Bates, S. P., Casey, M. M., Galloway, K. W., Galloway, R. K., Kay, A. E., Kirsop, P. and McQueen, H. A. (2014). Student-Generated Content: Enhancing learning through sharing multiple-choice questions. International Journal of Science Education, 36(13), 2180-2194. DOI: 10.1080/09500693.2014.916831

Casey, M. M., Bates, S. P., Galloway, K. W., Galloway, R. K., Hardy, J., Kay, A. E., Kirsop, P. and McQueen, H. A. (2014). Scaffolding Student Engagement via Online Peer Learning. European Journal of Physics, 35, 045002. DOI: 10.1088/0143-0807/35/4/045002

Hardy, J., Hancock, S., Johnson, O., Galloway, R. K., Wallace, M., Draper, S. and Bates, S. P. (2014). Fostering Learning Improvements in Physics. Available online at


Hardy, J., Kay, A. E. and Galloway, R. G. (2013). Students as Co-creators: the Development of Student Learning Networks in PeerWise. 2013 Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings, Engelhardt, P. V., Churukian, A. D. and Jones, D. L., eds., 169-172. Available online at

Johnson, O., Hancock, S., Hardy, J., Galloway, R. K., Wallace, M., Bates, S. P. and Draper, S. (2013). Fostering Learning Improvements in Physics: A status report. New Directions, 9(1), 60-65. DOI: 10.11120/ndir.2013.00001

Bates, S. P., Donnelly, R., MacPhee, C., Sands, D., Birch, M. and Walet, N. (2013). Gender Differences in Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics: A UK Cross-Instutional Comparison. European Journal of Physics, 34, 421. DOI: 10.1088/0143-0807/34/2/421

Galloway, R. K., Bates, S. P., Parker, J. and and Usoskina, E. (2013). The effect of research-based instruction in introductory physics on a common cognitive bias, AIP Conference Proceedings1513, 138. DOI: 10.1063/1.4789671

Bates, S. P. and Galloway, R. K. (2013). Student-generated assessment. Education in Chemistry. Available online at


Kay, A. E., Hardy, J. and Bates, S. P. (2012). A level playing field? Students' experiences of assessment in stem disciplines. Proceedings of the HEA STEM Learning and Teaching Conference.  DOI: 10.11120/stem.hea.2012.073

Bates, S. P. and Galloway, R. K. (2012). The inverted classroom in a large enrolment introductory physics course: a case study. Proceedings of the HEA STEM Learning and Teaching Conference. DOI: 10.11120/stem.hea.2012.071

Donnelly, R., MacPhee, C. and Bates, S.P. (2012). The Performance gender gap in undergraduate physics. Proceedings of the HEA STEM Learning and Teaching Conference. DOI: 10.11120/stem.hea.2012.069

Bates, S. P., Galloway, R. K. and McBride, K. (2012). Student-generated content: Using PeerWise to enhance engagement and outcomes in introductory physics courses.  AIP Conference Proceedings1413, 123. DOI: 10.1063/1.3680009

Slaughter, K. A., Bates S. P. and Galloway, R. K. (2012). A longitudinal study of the development of attitudes and beliefs towards physics. AIP Conference Proceedings1413, 359. DOI: 10.1063/1.3680069

Bates, S. P., Hardy, J., Kay, A. E., Galloway, R. K., McQueen, H. A. and Kirsop. P. (2012). Student-Generated Content for Learning (SGC4L): Enhancing Engagement, Feedback and Performance. Available online at


Bates, S. P., Galloway, R. K., Loptson, C. and Slaughter. K. A. (2011). How attitudes and beliefs about physics change from high school to faculty. Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res., 7(2), 020114. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.7.020114

Slaughter, K. A., Bates S. P. and Galloway, R. K. (2011). The Changes in Attitudes and Beliefs of First Year Physics Undergraduates: A Study Using the CLASS Survey. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 19(1), 29-42.  Available online at


Bates, S. P. and Galloway, R. K. (2010). Diagnostic tests for the physical sciences: A brief review. New Directions, 6, 10-20 DOI: 10.11120/ndir.2010.00060010

Jefferies, A. and Hardy, J. (2010). How Learners Change: Critical Moments, Changing Minds. In Sharpe, R., Beetham, H. and de Freitas, S. (Eds.), Rethinking Learning for a Digital Age, 114–127. New York & London: Routledge.

Older publications

Hardy, J., Bates, S. P., Haywood, J. and Haywood, D. (2009). Taking the lead: learners’ experiences across the disciplines. In H. Davis, L. Creanor, M. McPherson and F. Rennie (Eds.), “In dreams begins responsibility”— choice, evidence, and change. The 16th Association for Learning Technology Conference, 1–9. Manchester, UK.  Available online at

Hardy, J., Bates, S., P., Hill, J., and Antonioletti, M. (2008). Tracking and Visualisation of Student Use of Online Learning Materials in a Large Undergraduate Course. In Leung, H., Li, F., Lau, R. and Li, Q. (Eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning – ICWL 2007, 4823, 464–474. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-78139-4_41

Hardy, J., Haywood, D., Bates, S. P., Paterson, J. and Rhind, S. (2008). Expectations and Reality : Exploring the use of learning technologies across the disciplines. In Hodgson, V., Jones, C., Kargidis, T., McConnell, D. Retalis, S. Stamatis, D. and Zenios, M. (Eds.), Sixth International Conference on Networked Learning, 475–483. Halkidiki, Greece. Available online at

Bates, S. P., Hardy, J., Hill, J. and McKain, D. (2007). How design of online learning materials can accommodate the heterogeneity in student abilities, aptitudes and aspirations. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 2, 3–25. Available online at

Hardy, J., Bates, S. P., McKain, D., Murray, K., Paterson, J., McGonigle, B., Vigentini, L. and Jackson, A. (2006). The modus operandi of the next generation e-learner; an analysis of tracking usage across the disciplines. In Whitelock, D. and Wheeler, S. (Eds). The Next Generation’, Research Proceedings of the 13th Association of Learning Technology Conference, 108–120.

Hardy, J., Bates, S. P., Antonioletti, M. and Seed, T. (2005). Integrating e-Learning and On-Campus Teaching II: Evaluation of Student Use. In Cook, J and Whitelock, D. (Eds). Exploring the Frontiers of e-learning: borders, outposts and migration, Research Proceedings of the 12th Association of Learning Technology Conference, 140-153.

Bates, S. P. and Hardy, J. (2004). An Evaluation of an e-Learning Strategy: Watching the e-Learners Learn. In Preston D. S. and Nguyen, T.H.,  (Eds). Virtuality and Education: A Reader, Rodopi BV, 77-81.